What is the problem?
1. Immigration is a natural part of an open economy and society, at Migration Watch we welcome it. The problem is the current scale of immigration, which is simply unsustainable.
2. Opponents of tighter immigration control try and present the debate as being either ‘for’ or ‘against’ migration with a false policy choice of either allowing immigration or stopping it. This is obviously wrong. All countries have border controls and policies about who to admit and who to turn away. The relevant policy questions are around who and how many people are good for the UK. Since, immigration policy, just like any other policy area, should be managed in the best interests of the UK.
3. Concerns about the scale and impact of mass immigration can be dealt with while recognising that migrants come here for a very understandable reason, to try to better their lives.
The Scale of Immigration
4. High levels of net migration to the UK are a relatively recent phenomenon. The UK has always experienced periods of immigration (see here) but never on the current scale.
5. In 1997 net migration (the number of people coming to the UK minus the number leaving) was just 47,000. In the years that followed it rose to well over 200,000 and peaked at 320,000 in 2005. Under the last Labour government (1997-2010) an extra 3.6 million foreign migrants arrived, while one million British citizens left (see here).
6. The coalition government elected in 2010 pledged to reduce net migration to the ‘tens of thousands’. However, despite some reduction in migration from outside the European Union, net migration overall has not fallen (see here). The latest statistics show that net migration for the year-ending September 2014 was 298,000 (see here).
Why is the current level of immigration a problem?
7. High net migration has resulted in rapid population growth. The UK population has increased by an average of around 400,000 people a year since 2000 and currently stands at nearly 65 million. The Office of National Statistics project that the UK population will increase by a further five million over the next ten years bringing it to 70 million, and that it will carry on rising. The ONS state that two-thirds of this increase will be down to future migrants and their children. The remaining population growth will come from the UK’s existing population, including births to immigrants already here. (see here).
8. The UK (and especially England) is already densely populated by international standards and has a chronic shortage of housing (see here).
9. To cope with this population increase huge amounts will have to be spent on the expansion of school places, roads, rail, health and other infrastructure. This is at a time of budget deficit when public spending is being scaled back rather than increased.
Little economic benefit for the existing population and harmful for the worse off
10. Increased migration will not generate the extra tax revenue needed to pay for such infrastructure expansion. The only major inquiry ever conducted in the UK into the economic impact of immigration was carried out by the Select Committee on Economic Affairs of the House of Lords in 2007/08. In April 2008 they reported that “The overall fiscal impact of immigration is likely to be small, though this masks significant variations across different immigrant groups." (See here) These findings have been endorsed by the OECD which found in its annual report that ‘estimates of the fiscal impact of immigration vary, although in most countries it tends to be small in terms of GDP and is around zero on average across OECD countries.” (see here).
11. The UK economy is now in a period of economic growth that is forecast by the Office of Budget Responsibility to continue over the next few years. Mass immigration contributes a part of this growth, simply because more people make for a larger economy. It does not necessarily make for a better economy. The most recent OBR report assumed that current high levels of net migration would continue and that this additional inflow would add no more than a tenth of one per cent to GDP per head of the population. The House of Lords report previously referred to stated that "We have found no evidence for the argument, made by the government, business and many others, that net immigration - immigration minus emigration - generates significant economic benefits for the existing UK population." (see here).
12. The growing economy is creating more employment opportunities and the numbers of both UK born and migrants in employment are growing but the large pool of labour from abroad has been associated with continued low growth in earnings as employers have not had to offer higher wages (see here). Mass immigration is likely to be holding back wages for those in direct competition for work, which is often those who are already low paid – both British born and earlier migrants alike.
13. Public opinion is clear. A large majority (76%) of the public want to see immigration reduced (see here). That includes voters of all ethnicities (see here). This is not surprising, we all share similar concerns.
14. The greater the number of new arrivals, the harder it is for everyone to become fully integrated in British society. Trevor Phillips, the former head of the Equalities and Human Rights Commission, warned back in 2005 that the UK was “sleep walking into segregation”. Reasonable levels of migration are key to achieving strengthened community relations. See our paper “What can be done” (see here) which explains how net migration can be bought down to lower levels.
Updated 17th April 2015